Massmann, G. , Greskowiak, J. , Kohfahl, C. , Knappe, A. , Ohm, B. , Pekdeger, A. , Sültenfuß, J. , Taute, T. (2006): Evaluation of the hydrochemical conditions during bank filtration and artificial recharge in Berlin.

p 6 In: 5th International Symposium on Management of Aquifer Recharge / IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater. Berlin. 11. - 16.6.2005


Hydrochemical conditions were evaluated at both bank filtration and artificial recharge sites in Berlin. All bank filtration sites show a strong vertical age stratification. Rather than showing a typical redox zoning with more reducing conditions in greater distance from the surface water, the redox zones are horizontally layered, with more reducing conditions in greater depth. This is believed to be an effect of the strongly alternating groundwaterlevels and by the age stratification. The redox conditions are generally more reducing at the bank filtration sites, mainly as a result of the longer travel times and operational differences. Redox conditions at all sites vary seasonally in particular at the artificial recharge site, which is mainly caused by temperature changes.


The present report characterizes the field sites Lake Tegel and Lake Wannsee as well as the artificial recharge site GWA Tegel in terms of their clogging layer, sedimentary, hydraulic and hydrochemical properties. As a result, a solid basis for the interpretation of specific compounds evaluated within NASRI and for subsequent modeling and quantification of the data is given. Major problems or difficulties where identified, in order to focus investigations on aspects not fully understood to date in the next project phase. The combination of different tracers enables the interpretation of the flow regime. With the help of T/He analysis, ages of different water bodies can be estimated. The analysis of tracer showing distinct seasonal variations is used to estimate travel times while water constituents which are either mainly present in the bank filtrate or the background water are used for mixing calculations. The proportions of treated wastewater in the surface water were estimated in front of the transects. The surface water composition varies largely both in time and space, which is a problem at Wannsee, where the surface water sampling point is not representative for the bank filtration input. Estimates for travel times of the bank filtrate to individual observation and production wells are given and vary between days and several months. The production wells are a mixture of bank filtrate and water from inland of the wells and deeper aquifers, proportions of bank filtrate are given where possible to differentiate between contaminant removal and dilution. They vary between < 20 and > 80 %. The new observation wells enable a vertical differentiation of the infiltrate. It becomes clear that at Tegel and Wannsee, there is a strong vertical succession towards larger proportions of considerably older bank filtrate with depth. At the Wannsee transect, the observation wells deeper than the lake do not reflect the surface water signal at all. It will be important to combine the new information with hydraulic information of existing flow models (mainly of the IGB “model” group). The evaluation of the redox conditions shows that redox successions proceed with depth rather than (only) in flow direction. In addition, the redox zoning (as characterised by the appearance or disappearance of redox sensitive species) is very transient. The zones are much wider in winter than in summer, in particular at the artificial recharge site GWA Tegel, probably due to temperature effects. This poses a challenge for the desired modelling and the interpretation of data from redoxsensitive substances.

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