Matzinger, A. , Riechel, M. , Petersen, S. O. , Heinzmann, B. , Pawlowsky-Reusing, E. (2015): A planning instrument for an integrated and recipient/impact based CSO control under conditions of climate change.

In: Hulsmann A., Grützmacher G., van den Berg G., Rauch W., Jensen A. L., Popovych V., Mazzola M. R., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L. S. & Savic D. A. [eds.], Climate Change, Water Supply and Sanitation. Risk assessment, management, mitigation and reduction. IWA Publishing. London


Combined sewer overflows (CSO) after heavy rainfall can cause acute depletions of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Berlin River Spree. Further aggravation of ecological deficits can be expected from global climate change. A planning instrument for CSO impact assessment under different sewer management and climate conditions has been developed at Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Berlin. It couples the sewer model InfoWorks CS, the river water quality model Hydrax/QSim and an impact assessment tool. The planning instrument was validated for the years 2010 and 2011. Simulation results for the critical parameters discharge and DO concentrations in the Berlin River Spree agree well with measurements. Although not all observed DO deficits can be simulated accurately, the very good representation of processes related to the oxygen budget allows assessing relative changes in boundary conditions, e.g. from climate change or different CSO control strategies. The conducted scenario analysis indicates that the coupled sewer-rivermodel reacts sensitively to changes in boundary conditions (temperature, rainfall, storage volume and other CSO control strategies, etc.). Based on the simulation year 2007 – representing an extreme year with regards to CSO volume and critical conditions in the river – sewer rehabilitation measures planned to be implemented until 2020 are predicted to reduce total CSO volumes by 17% and discharged pollutant loads by 21 - 31%. The frequency of critical DO conditions for the most sensitive local fish species will decrease by one third. For a further improvement of water quality after the year 2020, the reduction of impervious surfaces emerges as a very effective management strategy where feasible. A reduction of the impervious connected area by 20% results in a decrease in the frequency of critical DO conditions by another third. The studied increase in surface air and water temperature as part of the climate change scenarios leads to a significant aggravation of DO stress due to background pollution in the Berlin River Spree, while acute DO depletions after CSO are barely affected. However, changes in rain intensity have a considerable effect on CSO volumes, pollutant loads and the frequency of critical DO concentrations. A general reduction of discharged pollutant loads by 60% based on the sewer status 2020 can prevent critical DO conditions in the Berlin River Spree, even for the exceptionally rain intense year 2007. A detailed analysis of river processes after CSO, has shown that the biodegradation of organic carbon compounds is the most important contributor to acute DO depletions in the Berlin River Spree. An additional impairment of DO conditions is caused by the inflow of oxygen free CSO spill water and suspended solids into the Berlin River Spree. In this report, CSO impacts under different management strategies or climate change conditions are assessed only for a part of the Berlin combined sewer system (although the main part) and for one exemplary year. An extension of the planning instrument to the entire combined sewer system would enable to evaluate the full impact of measures. For a robust prediction of future CSO impacts it is also recommended to test different simulation periods or conduct long-term simulations.


Water is one of the sectors where climate change will be most pronounced. While the extents of the impacts are not known yet, it is the right period to prepare the utilities to adapt to the global changes in an urbanising world. Adaptation to climate change, though not always perceived as such, is often already reality in the urban water sector. Several adaptation strategies have been tested to address the key questions: Adapt to what? What to adapt? How to adapt? In this context, within the framework of the EU-project PREPARED, a tentative classification and catalogue of implemented initiatives in the water sector has been compiled. This catalogue is organised into four major categories of initiatives: (1) risk assessment and management, (2) supply-side measures, (3) demand-side measures and (4) global planning tools. The document aims at providing examples on how utilities could go ahead into preparing their water supply and sanitation systems to climate change. Initiatives include various measures ranging from the promotion of active learning to the prevention of sewer flooding and water conservation measures. Within PREPARED, this catalogue is supporting the development of solutions. Being a living document, it is updated regularly along the project when new solutions and initiatives are known. In addition, this work and the subsequent database of adaptation initiatives are accessible to a broader audience thanks to the web-based ‘WaterWiki’ of the International Water Association (IWA).

Staub, M. , Moreau-Le Golvan, Y. , Grützmacher, G. (2012): A catalogue and matrix of initiatives as a toolbox for utilities to enhance their preparedness for climate change.

p 4 In: IWA World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy. Dublin, Ireland. 13-18 June 2012


Water is one of the sectors where climate change will be most pronounced, but at the same time it is one of the sectors where numerous adaptation possibilities exist. While the extents of the impacts are not known yet, it is the right period to prepare the utilities to adapt to the global changes in an urbanizing world. Adaptation to climate change, though not always perceived as such, is already reality in the urban water sector. In this context, within the framework of the international research project PREPARED funded by the European Commission and, among others, Veolia Water and local utilities, a toolbox consisting in a catalogue and a dynamic matrix of initiatives in the water sector is being compiled by the Berlin Centre of Competence for Water, KWB.


Theoretically the Berlin River Spree could be under pressure from depressions in dissolved oxygen (DO) and high concentration of fish toxic ammonia following overflows of the combined sewer system. However, monitoring results indicate that the Spree is only under pressure from depressions in dissolved oxygen (DO). Consequently, a sewer model, a river water quality model and an impact assessment tool were calibrated and validated for representation of DO depressions. The three elements are joined in a planning tool, which will be used to test the effect of CSO management approaches for the current situation and with altered boundary conditions to account for expected climate change.


Combined sewer overflows (CSO) impair the quality of urban surface waters around the world. Future change, in particular global warming, is expected to worsen the situation further in many urban areas. To improve the quality of urban surface waters, tools are needed to support decision makers in the assessment of CSO-related impacts and possible mitigation measures. Apart from finding solutions to current problems, it is important that these tools also allow the adaptation of these solutions to future change scenarios to be prepared for likely developments. The present report suggests a model-based planning instrument for the assessment of CSO impacts on receiving surface waters under different sewer management and climate change scenarios. The suggested planning instrument couples a sewer and a surface water model for which boundary conditions can be changed depending on the studied scenario. The simulated CSO impact is then analysed via a coupled impact-assessment tool. The selection of appropriate model approach, assessment guideline and scenarios depend on the local conditions regarding the sewer system, the surface water type and the relevant CSO impact. Accordingly, the report aims at giving a general overview of available models, assessment guidelines, as well as sewer management and change scenarios, which allows setting up a planning instrument for a wide range of local conditions. The present report serves as a step-by-step-manual for setting up an impactbased planning instrument for CSO control: 1. Assessment of possible impacts of CSO, depending on local receiving surface water bodies (chapter 2.1) 2. If this assessment shows the need for a planning instrument, sewer and surface water models should be selected depending on type of impact, type of sewer system and type of surface water body (chapters 2.2 and 2.3). 3. Selected models need to be run, validated and possibly calibrated separately and as coupled tools (chapter 2.4).4. Scenarios are defined consisting of (i) CSO management solutions, depending on impacts of CSO that should be mitigated and sewer system characteristics (chapter 3.2) and (ii) global or local change to be accounted for depending on the local situation (chapter 3.1). The instrument can be used to test sensitivity of CSO impacts to different scenarios or for concrete planning of measures, including cost (chapters 3.3 and 3.4). Use of the manual is exemplified in a case study for Berlin for each of the above steps. Application of the Berlin planning instrument will be demonstrated in Prepared Report D 1.3.2, due in February 2013.

Grützmacher, G. , Kneppers, A. , Kazner, C. , Zojer, H. (2010): A European initiative to define current research needs in managed aquifer recharge.

p 7 In: 7th International Symposium on Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR). Abu Dhabi, UAE. October 9-13, 2010


The Water Supply and Sanitation Technology Platform (WssTP) was initiated by the European commission in 2004 and developed by the European Water Industry, open to all stakeholders. The objective is to stimulate a collaborative, innovative, visionary and integrated research and technology development strategy for the European water sector. Within different pilot programmes of the WssTP Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) was identified as a topic of interest and area relevant for further research. For this reason a Task Force on MAR was initiated in 2009 with 36 representatives from European research institutes, industry partners and with participation of international experts. During a workshop conducted in Graz in June 2009 these experts developed the basis for a report that has now been submitted to the European Commission for consideration in future research calls. In this report MAR was identified as a possible countermeasure against degradation of groundwater resources in Europe, that has a history of more than 150 years of practical implementation in Europe. Although not generating “new” water resources, it enables the use of alternative resources that would not be used otherwise (e.g. storm-water, seasonal high water flow, recycled water) for drinking water and irrigation by buffering high variations in availability and demand. MAR also provides an additional purification step in the regional water cycle. Recharged water can also act as an hydraulic barrier to prevent saltwater intrusion or the spreading of contaminated groundwater and inhibit a regional decrease of groundwater tables. This is particularly important in the scope of achieving the goals of the EU water framework directive. Research needs were identified in the field of defining “Best Management Practices” and standards for MAR in Europe, modelling for transparent feasibility assessment and the investigation of MAR in karstic aquifers.

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