Gewässergütesimulation der Stauhaltung Charlottenburg (Spree und Kanäle) unter Berücksichtigung der Mischwasserentlastungen am Beispiel eines Starkregenereignisses im September 2005

The objective of the studies performed in the scope of the Integrated Sewage Management (ISM) project on combined sewer overflows in Berlin, Germany was to develop methods that would make it possible to assess wastewater management measures performed under the city’s water management permit as well as more sophisticated strategies (e.g., global real time control) through the application of water body-related criteria. For this purpose, a preliminary study was first performed to characterize the underlying water body-specific processes and hydraulic, physical, chemical and ecological parameters relevant to the status of Berlin’s surface waters (LESZINSKI et al., 2007a). The second step involved the development of a method for water quality-oriented assessment of wastewater management measures (LESZINSKI ET AL., 2007b). In addition to the already recognized thresholds for dissolved oxygen concentration during continuous, long-term water load conditions, particular focus was placed on formulating requirements for oxygen demand under peak load conditions. Ammonia toxicity due to sewage input, another important stress factor for aquatic ecosystems, was also analyzed and threshold values for both chronic and acute peak ammonia loads were defined. The results of the third phase of this research are described in this report. Two numerical simulation models (for urban drainage networks and surface waters) were combined and the feasibility of the developed method was evaluated based on the case of a combined sewer overflow event documented by the surface water monitoring. The simulations were performed using InfoWorksTM CS hydrological/hydrodynamic urban drainage network modeling software (ISM model) and the GERRIS/HYDRAX/Qsim unsteady ecosystem modeling system. The latter model was developed by the Federal Institute of Hydrology in Koblenz and is used by the Senate Department of Health, Environment and Consumer Protection (SenGesUmV). The present report describes the theoretical principles of the utilized models, the base of data available for analysis of the selected event, and the assumptions made in cases of missing input data for hydraulic modeling as well as for the water quality simulations. The one-dimensional hydraulic modeling results for the branched surface water system of the reach Berlin-Charlottenburg demonstrated that the hydraulic conditions can be simulated with satisfactory accuracy using the current data. In the case of water temperature, it was also possible to achieve a high degree of agreement between the measured and computed values in spite of the lack of highresolution temporal input data from the tributaries (Landwehr Canal, Panke River, BerlinSpandau Ship Canal). However, this was not the case for dissolved oxygen concentration, the main parameter used for evaluation of combined water treatment. The DOC simulations computed using input data based on a monthly sampling interval did not show satisfactory agreement with the online measurements in the water system. Dry-weather biological processes, which were associated with high-level, short-term oxygen enrichment or consumption, could not be depicted in the simulations. After completion of the water quality simulations, the effect of variation of individual input parameters was assessed. This analysis showed that no significant improvement of agreement with the measured values could be achieved by adjusting the assumptions for individual parameters (chlorophyll-a and BSB5). In the case of ammonia, the second most important parameter, the available sampling data from the tributaries in the investigated water system were collected only once a month, if at all. Therefore, it cannot be expected that the temporal distribution of this parameter was correctly reflected by the model. The number of validation measurements taken within the water system was also insufficient. Summarizing the results of the study of the linked urban drainage/surface water quality model, which was tested for the first time, it can be concluded that InfoWorks CS and GERRIS/HYRDRAX/Qsim provide problem-oriented simulation tools for reaching the objective of ISM study of assessing various scenarios for reduction of impacts from combined sewer overflows. By contrast, the available data are deficient and do not allow to adjust and calibrate the models to meet the specific needs of this task, particularly in light of the fact that short-term effects of combined sewer overflows are to be analyzed.

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