Deliverable D3.2: Show case of the environmental benefits and risk assessment of reuse schemes

This report summarizes the results of Life Cycle Assessment, Water footprinting, and quantitative microbial and chemical risk assessment for selected demosites of water reuse in Europe, measuring the potential impacts of different types of water reuse on environment and human health. The case studies show that water reuse is often preferable from an environmental point of view in areas with water scarcity problems if compared to other alternatives such as water import or seawater desalination. Potential risks of water reuse for ecosystems or human health can be adequately managed if suitable processes for reclaimed water treatment are used and operated correctly. However, the study also shows the trade-offs between a higher level of reclaimed water treatment and increased environmental impacts from associated efforts in energy, chemicals and infrastructure. This inherent trade-off requires a site-specific assessment of reuse schemes to choose an adequate treatment scheme for risk management with reasonable global environmental impacts.

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